The Republic of Azerbaijan was part of the former Soviet Union until its independence in 1991. It has a land area of 86,600 square kilometers with a population of 8,177,717 in 2008. The country is at the middle of Western Asia and Eastern Europe and is bounded to the east by the Caspian Sea, to the north by Russia, to the northwest by the Republic of Georgia, to the west by Armenia and to the south of Iran. The population is mostly Turkish and Shi'ite Muslims. The name Azerbaijan is derived from the name Atropates, a satrap of Persia and the name can be traced to the Iranian religion of Zoroastrianism. The climate of the country is highly influenced by the Siberian cold fronts and central Asian cold fronts. This makes for extreme temperatures from extreme cold to extreme heat. The country is rich in oil and natural gas, together with rich deposits of precious metals embedded in the Lesser Caucasus region of the country. It has also become a major economic hub for transporting raw materials to the other former Soviet republics with its gateway into the Caspian Sea.

The major cities of Azerbaijan include Baku, Ganja, Sumqavit, Mingachevir, Shirvan, Nakchivan, Bakixanov, Shaki, Yeylakh, Khankendy, Lankaran, Rasulzasa, Baladjery, Mastaga, Agdam, Barda, Khachmaz, Jalilabad and Hovsan.

The biggest airport in the country is the Heydar Aliyev International Airport in Baku City. The next biggest is located in Ganja, the Ganja International Airport. The Nakhichevan Airport serves both as a public airport and a military airport.